# Rings (Handwritten notes) by Atiq ur Rehman

Ring is a two-operation mathematical structure. It is an abelian group with one operation and a semi-group with another operation, and the distributive law is true for the first operation relative to the second operation. This mathematical idea is fundamentally pure. These notes offer a very simple method for learning the concept of rings and other ideas that are closely related to rings. These are lecture notes written by Atiq ur Rehman.

**Name:**Rings (Handwritten notes)- Lecture Notes**Author:**Atiq ur Rehman**Pages:**37 pages**Format:**PDF (see Software section for PDF Reader)**Size:**PDF: 3.28 MB

### CONTENTS OR SUMMARY:

- Rings; definition and examples
- Commutative ring, ring with unity, Boolean's ring, division ring
- Zero divisor and examples, integral domain and related theorems
- Field, examples and related theorems
- Characteristic of ring, examples and related theorems
- Regular ring, examples and related theorems
- Ideals, and related theorem
- Quotient ring
- Homomorphism of a ring, kernel of homomorphism and related theorems
- Principal ideal, principal ideal ring
- Maximal ideal and related theorem
- Fundamental homomorphism theorem