# Question 5, Exercise 2.2

Solutions of Question 5 of Exercise 2.2 of Unit 02: Matrices and Determinants. This is unit of Model Textbook of Mathematics for Class XI published by National Book Foundation (NBF) as Federal Textbook Board, Islamabad, Pakistan.

If $X=\left[\begin{array}{lll}1 & 2 & 2 \\ 2 & 1 & 2 \\ 2 & 2 & 1\end{array}\right]$ then prove that $X^{2}-4 X-5 I=0$.

Solution.

Given the matrix \begin{align}L.H.S. & =X^{2}-4 X-5 I \\ &=\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 2 & 2 \\ 2 & 1 & 2 \\ 2 & 2 & 1 \end{bmatrix} \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 2 & 2 \\ 2 & 1 & 2 \\ 2 & 2 & 1 \end{bmatrix}-4\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 2 & 2 \\ 2 & 1 & 2 \\ 2 & 2 & 1 \end{bmatrix}-5\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 1 \end{bmatrix}\\ & = \begin{bmatrix} 1 + 4 + 4 & 2 + 2 + 4 & 2 + 4 + 2 \\ 2 + 2 + 4 & 4 + 1 + 4 & 4 + 2 + 2 \\ 2 + 4 + 2 & 4 + 2 + 2 & 4 + 4 + 1 \end{bmatrix}-\begin{bmatrix} 4 & 8 & 8 \\ 8 & 4 & 8 \\ 8 & 8 & 4 \end{bmatrix}- \begin{bmatrix} 5 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 5 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 5 \end{bmatrix}\\ &=\begin{bmatrix} 9 & 8 & 8 \\ 8 & 9 & 8 \\ 8 & 8 & 9 \end{bmatrix} - \begin{bmatrix} 4 & 8 & 8 \\ 8 & 4 & 8 \\ 8 & 8 & 4 \end{bmatrix} - \begin{bmatrix} 5 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 5 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 5 \end{bmatrix}\\ &= \begin{bmatrix} 5 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 5 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 5 \end{bmatrix} - \begin{bmatrix} 5 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 5 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 5 \end{bmatrix}\\ &= \begin{bmatrix} 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 \\ 0 & 0 & 0 \end{bmatrix} = O\\ &=R.H.S.\end{align}