# Applied Mathematics (Paper A & B)

This paper consista of two papers of 100 marks each. One paper is called “Paper A” and other is called “Paper B”.

• NOTE: attempt two questions from each section.

Vectors in three-dimensions. Scalar and vector products with applications. Scalar and vector triple products. Differentiation and integration of vector functions. Gradient, divergence and curl. Differential operators. Application to vector analysis. Composition and resolution of co-planar forces. $(\lambda ,\mu )$ Theorem, Lamy’s Theorem, Varignon’s Theorem, Moments, couples and conditions of equilibrium under the action of co-planar forces.

Types of forces, Direction of forces of constraints, Equilibrium of three co-planer forces and related problem. Center of gravity. Symmetry and Center of mass, Center of mass of various bodies. Frictional forces. Laws of friction. Equilibrium of bodies on rough surfaces. Principle of virtual work and related problems.

Kinematics of a particle in Cartesian and polar co-ordinates. Laws of mechanics. Linear and angular velocity. Relative velocity. Rectilinear motion with uniform and variable acceleration. Simple harmonic motion. Projectile motion. Motion along horizontal and vertical circles. Orbital motion. Elliptic orbit under a central force, Polar form of the orbit, Apse and Apsidal Distance, Planetary motion and Keplar’s laws.

• NOTE: attempt two questions from each section.

Basic concepts of differential equations. Classification and formation of DEs. Various methods of solutions of first order ODE (linear and non-linear). The Bernoulli’s, Ricatti and Clairaut’s equations. Singular solutions. Orthogonal trajectories. Application of first order ODE in problems of decay and growth, population dynamics, logistic equations. Linear DE of higher order (homogeneous and non-homogeneous). Solution by: D-operator and undetermined co-officients Methods. Reduction of order and variation of parameters methods for 2nd order linear DE. Cauchy-Euler equation. Power series solution about an arbitrary point.

Laplace Transformation, solution of ODEs. Error analysis. Solution of non-linear (algebraic and transcendental) equation in one variable using bisection method, false position method, Newton - Raphson method and fixed point method. Difference operators. Interpolation (Newton’s and Lagrange’s methods). Numerical differentiation (at a point of the data). Numerical integration (rectangular, trapezoidal and 1/3 Simpson’s rules).

Co-ordinates in three dimension. Rectangular, cylindrical and spherical co-ordinates. Equations of plane, straight line, sphere, cylinder, cone, ellipsoid, hyperboloid and paraboloid. Longitude and latitudes. Spherical triangle and direction of Qibla. Inner Product Space, Eigen values and Eigen vectors, Dignalization of matrices.

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10. Mechanics by O.K. Ghori. West Pakistan Publishing Company, Lahore.